The underlying idea behind ‘fair dealing’ in copying copyright works is that the copying should benefit the individual or society without harming the interests of the copyright owner.

  1. If the copying (of sections of a book) replaces the need for you or anyone else to buy the work, then the copying is probably not fair.
  2. Usually only part of a work may be used without breaching copyright.
  3. The source of the copy must be acknowledged. This means recording at least the name of the author and the title on the photocopy if this is not already included.
  4. If photocopying, the copy being made should be for the person doing the copying, and no-one else. It must not be passed on; it is for personal use only.


  1. Up to 10% or one complete chapter of a book, plus any associated endnotes or references. E.g. if a chapter comprises 25% of a book, you can photocopy the entire chapter; but if you want to photocopy extracts from more than one chapter, you can only copy up to 10% of the book (this requirement is in addition to and not in place of, the above).
  2. No more than a single photocopy should be produced, for the personal use of the person doing the copying. Multiple copying (e.g. by teachers for students) is not generally permitted under “fair dealing” for private study or research.
  3. “Fair dealing” for private study or research does not authorise the reproduction of copyright protected material in other works, such as publications, coursework or dissertations’

The best advice is this: If you have any doubts about copying/using Copyright works, don’t copy anything until you’ve checked with a Copyright lawyer.




Martin Pollins

Managing Director at One Smart Place
Martin Pollins is a Chartered Accountant and MBA with wide experience in corporate finance and business management. He has served on the boards of several companies, including those listed on the London Stock Exchange, AIM and OFEX. He is Chairman and Founder of OneSmartPlace and was a Council member of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales from 1988 to 1996. He was managing partner of PRB Martin Pollins, based in Sussex, the first Accountancy firm to advertise on British television.He went on to create and launch the CharterGroup Partnership (the UK’s first Accountancy network) and then LawGroup UK (at the time, one of the largest networks of lawyers in the UK). In recent years, he helped to raise several £millions to fund British films such as The Da Vinci Code, Bridge of San Luis Rey, Head in the Clouds and Merchant of Venice with actors such as Charlize Theron, Robert De Niro, Al Pacino, F. Murray Abraham. Kathy Bates, Gabriel Byrne, Geraldine Chaplin, Tom Hanks, Ian McKellen, Audrey Tautou, Penélope Cruz, Steven Berkoff, Lynn Collins, Jeremy Irons, Joseph Fiennes and many more.

He has written over 700 business publications (see Glossaries at and is editor of Better Business Focus (see His Blog, on a wide range of subjects can be found at:
Martin Pollins

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